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Finally, the fifth cause is the regional, contingency factor or demonstration effect; in simpler terms the snowball effect. Democracy is moreover treated in this book as a dichotomous variable, with some cases.
In chronological order: Portugal, Spain, nine new democracies in Latin America, Poland and Hungary. During this wave, about thirty democratic regimes replaced 13 Multiple labels are applied to indicate the same concept; this type of regime has been variously described. 2003. These mistakes reflect well-known cognitive biases such as overconfidence and the illusion of control. Indeed, groups chose, moderation in order to obtain participation and the incorporation into the political system. power took the lead in bringing about democracy; 2) transplacements (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bolivia, and Nicaragua) where democratization occurred from joint action by, government and opposition groups; 3) replacements (East Germany, Portugal, Romania, and, Argentina) where opposition groups took the lead in bringing about democracy; and 4), interventions (Grenada and Panama) where democratic institutions were imposed by an, For Huntington, the most important syndrome of the third wave of democratization, is the trade-off between moderation and participation.
22 Gurr himself talks about scores of autocracy and democracy, but it is nevertheless clear that what he is measuring is competition. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Check if you have access via personal or institutional login, COPYRIGHT: © Trustees of Princeton University 2000, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, “Issues in the Comparative Measurement of Political Democracy,”, “Liberal Democracy: Validity and Method Factors in Cross-National Measures,”, On Measuring Democracy: Its Consequences and Concomitants, “Tracking Democracy's Third Wave with the Polity III Data,”, Studies in International Comparative Development, Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences wtth Democracy, “An Overview of the Political Regime Change Dataset,”, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Prospects for Democracy, The Emergence of Democracy: A Comparative Study of 119 States, 1850—1979, Prospects of Democracy: A Study of 172 Countries, Voter Turnout from 1945 to 1997: A Global Report, “Persistence and Change in Political Systems,”, Department of Political Science, University of Leiden, Elections since 1945: A World-wide Reference Compendium, The International Almanac of Electoral History, International Guide to Electoral Statistics, “Double Take: A Reexamination of Democracy and Autocracy in Modern Polities,”, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043887100016580. 25 Coppedge and Reinecke (fn.  A 2020 study by several political scientists from German universities found that democratization through bottom-up peaceful protests led to higher levels of democracy and democratic stability than democratization prompted by elites. In both the first and second waves all the democratic political systems shifted to, authoritarian forms of government. ", "Endogenous democracy: causal evidence from the potato productivity shock in the old world", "The Matthew effect in political science: head start and key reforms important for democratization", "Is Small Really Beautiful? , Digital media played a much longer term role in creating favorable conditions for uprisings, helped to publicize key igniting events, and then facilitated those uprisings and their diffusion; but digital media did not do this alone or as suddenly as some observers have claimed. a tool to understand the facts of the world. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings.  According to Michael Ross, "only one type of resource has been consistently correlated with less democracy and worse institutions: petroleum, which is the key variable in the vast majority of the studies that identify some type of curse. In political science, democratic backsliding, also known as democratic erosion or de-democratization, is a gradual decline in the quality of democracy. He emphasizes the Vatican Council of 1962, which turned the Catholic Church from defenders of the old established order into an opponent of totalitarianism. Reversal began in 1922, when Benito Mussolini rose to power in Italy.
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